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国际教育前沿快讯

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双语环境可有效促进大脑发育

Brain Labs


众多科学研究揭示了双语环境对于大脑开发更为深刻、基础性的意义。调查结果显示,长期使用双语会话可以使人更加聪明。一系列数据表明,双语系统可以促进大脑的执行功能。计划、解决问题与实现不同层次的精神需求都由大脑的执行功能统一支配。在双语环境中,大脑中的执行功能区域不仅增强了,而且可以长期保持活跃、发达的状态。


Scientific research has revealed more profound and fundamental benefits of bilingualism. As it turns out, being bilingual actually makes you smarter. Collective evidence from a number of studies suggest that bilingualism improves the brain’s executive function. Planning, problem solving and performing various other mentally demanding tasks are controlled through executive function that is command center in the brain. Many studies reveal that executive function in the brains of bilinguals are not only improved but remain stronger throughout one’s life.


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据专家所述,学习第二语言的最佳时期是出生后至3岁,这期间第一语言功能还在发展,大脑思维还处于开放状态,较为灵活。第二个最佳时期是4-7岁,因为这阶段的大脑仍具有平行处理多种语言的功能。第三个学习第二语言的最佳时期是8岁-青春期。青春期之后,新语言将被储存在大脑另一个单独区域,因此这时候学习第二语言需要通过翻译过程从母语区域向第二语言转换,学习过程变得更为复杂。


According to experts, the best time for second language acquisition is from birth to 3 years when first language skills are being developed and the mind is still open and flexible. The next best time for learning a second language is when kids are between 4 and 7 years old, because they can still process multiple languages on parallel paths. The third best time for learning a second language is from about age 8 to puberty. After puberty, studies show, new languages are stored in a separate area of the brain, so children have to translate or go through their native language as a path to the new language making the process more difficult.


家长可以通过以下方式让孩子们的第二语言学习过程更为简单,比如:

打开电视、收音机或者网络的外语频道,长期播放;

常听外语歌曲,学唱外语歌曲;

尝试用外语记录日记,每天写一段简短的文字。


Parents can do simple things to make the language learning process easier for their children, for example:

-Turning on a foreign language station on TV, radio or internet and have it playing often

-Listen to and learn to sing classic songs in the foreign language

-Keep a journal in the foreign language and write a simple paragraph about your day each day


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链接地址:

http://www.sierrasun.com/entertainment/health/18705568-113/parenting-child-development-the-benefits-of-bilingualism



别开生面的人文课堂

High School Builds Sod House


Charles城市高中人文课堂近日通过一种特殊方式来学习美国历史与早期生活。学生们利用上课时间到户外操场手工建造19世纪的草皮房。完成后,学生们会做一个19世纪美国居住条件的展示汇报。虽然建筑的过程非常艰难,但是学生们认为通过这种实践活动,对于美国历史与早期美国人的生活有了更加深刻、直观的了解与认识,并且将课本的内容与实际生活紧密联系起来。


The Charles City High School humanities class has been learning about American history and the early pioneers in America by spending class time outdoors to build a 19th century sod house on school grounds. After its completion, students will give a presentation on 19th century living. The building is hard work, but the students feel they have a much better understanding of American history and the lives of the early Americans, and they are able to connect their history books to real life.


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链接地址:http://www.chron.com/news/article/Northern-Iowa-high-school-class-builds-sod-house-6548187.php#photo-8733479



社交智能成为美国教育关键

Brain Labs


美国学校越来越重视社交情感方面的教育,并且已经将其作为学术教育的关键环节。虽然情感与认知源于大脑不同的功能区,但是它们相互作用,在学习和记忆中扮演着非常重要的角色。据神经科学家Eric Jensen描述,填充大脑的各个区域,比如好奇、秘密、惊讶、悬念、困惑、怀疑,安全感等都在为学习整理思维。此外,将情感融入教学过程与内容有助于大脑的长期记忆。这对于教师来说可能已经不是新闻,但是并不是所有的学生都知道如何去优化大脑来学习。


Schools across the United States are increasingly emphasizing social emotional learning as a key to academic learning. Although emotion and cognition originate in different parts of the brain, they interact and play a powerful role in learning and memory. According to neuroscientists like Eric Jensen, priming the brain for particular states of engagement -- such as curiosity, intrigue, surprise, suspense, a bit of confusion, skepticism, and the feeling of safety -- prepares the mind to learn. Furthermore, incorporating emotion into our instruction and content supports long-term memory. This might not be news to teachers, but not enough students know how to optimize their brain for learning.


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近期调查显示,流行文化也在逐渐引导社交智能方向的学习。例如近期上映的皮克斯电影《头脑特工队》展示了大脑是如何产生思想、情感与经验的过程。电影教导我们一个思维的原则:人类可以控制大脑对于生活中遭遇困难、面对挑战时的反应。学生们可以通过学习来减弱生活中的悲伤情绪,增强快乐情绪,在必要的时候激发愤怒情绪。


Recent research and even pop culture can inform social emotional learning in the classroom. For example, one lesson might include activities related to the ideas expressed by Pixar's film Inside Out in order to show how the brain processes thoughts, feelings, and experiences. The movie teaches a fundamental principle about the mind: We can control how our brain reacts to life's challenges. Students can learn to alleviate sadness, increase joy, or activate anger when necessary.


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链接地址:http://www.edutopia.org/blog/brain-labs-enliven-learning-lori-desautels?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=socialflow%20&utm_campaign=Feed%3A%20EdutopiaNewContent%20%28Edutopia%29



PBL课程基本普及美国

“Maker Space”



Vicksburg Warren学校已经开始它的第一个专题项目学习(PBL)课程——机械课。在机械课上,老师教学生如何使用工程设计程序与日常工具,体现了所学内容与生活的相关性和实用性。机械课教师Ben Battle已经教授科学技术领域长达19年,深刻感受到PBL是一种更加有效的教学方式,同时对于教师也有更大的挑战性。“它是对于现实世界的应用,”他说,“今天我要向学生们展示这些机器人其实和火星车非常类似。我们上周看了一个NASA(美国宇航局)科学家的视频,她所做的事情和我们现在做的很像。PBL就是要学生们摆脱书本,用更高级的思维能力去解决问题。它让学生们远离死记硬背和应试教育,它会给出一个问题,需要学生们去设计、创造一个模型,提供一种解决问题的方式。”


Vicksburg Warren School District has begun its first project-based learning robotics class. The robotics class teaches students how to use the engineering design process and things happening in the everyday world to show students the practicality of what they are learning. Ben Battle, the robotics teacher, has been teaching science and technology for 19 years, and feels that project based learning is more rewarding, but also more challenging for teachers. “It’s real world application,” he said. “Just today I was showing them how their robots are very, very similar to the Mars Rover. We watched a video last week of a NASA scientist, and what she’s doing is similar to what we’re doing. Project based learning is getting away from the textbooks and using higher order thinking skills to problem solve. It’s getting away from the rote memory and test questions. It’s a ‘here’s a situation, I need you to design something’ and making a prototype. It’s more about problem solving.


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链接地址:http://www.vicksburgpost.com/2015/10/20/area-teacher-still-learning/


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